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Authors: Kulyk Maksym, Shokalo Natalia
Keywords: Сastor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a raw material for production, biofuel, by-products
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Riga, Latvia : “Baltija Publishing”
Abstract: Abstract. The article has demonstrated the necessity of investigating new, alien crops such ascastor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a raw material for production of biofuel and by-products for different fields of industry. The detailed description of plant morphology, and practices regarding increase of seed germination ability of the studied crops have been given. Solid literature overview has been made and attention has been emphasized on the up-to-date of the research of castor-oil plant and switchgrass seed productivity. Expanding of cultivation area enables to provide farmers with seed material as well as processing industry with raw material. In future this will permit to obtain seed material, plant biomass for energy purposes and technical oil of high quality in order to satisfy requirements of strategic fields of industry. Research object is the morphological and biological peculiarities and seed productivity of castor-oil plant and switchgrass depending on quantitative indices of plants considering weather conditions of the vegetation period. Methods. Methods of multi-year research in the forest-steppe of Ukraine are standard for the zone of these crops cultivation and special methodical recommendations have been used as well. The area of seeding plot of land was 54.0 м2, the area of accounting plot of land was 50 м2, experiment Observations and analyses have been applied according to the appropriate research recommendations. Statistical processing of the research results have been done by the analysis of variance as well as correlation and regression analysis, applying licensed computer programme Statistica–6.0. Results. Switchgrass and castor-oil plant response to the environmental conditions has been defined and this enables to allocate these crops in certain soil and climate zones of Ukraine reasonably and choose the ideal elements of the cultivation technology. This will permit to work out farm operations for the development of conditions close to favourable for plant growth and development and providing high productivity of phytomass and seed. It has been determined that studied crops have similar responses to the weather conditions. Under optimal conditions during the vegetation period (hydrothermal coefficient near or more than 1.0) increase of biometric characteristics, seed size and seed productivity has been recorded and vice versa. Established correlation dependencies have proved this factor (r > 0,70). Statistically proved that castor-oil plant provides higher seed productivity (to 2.68 тt/hа) depending on the length and number of clusters per the plant and switchgrass provides seed productivity depending on the length and number of panicle per the plant (to 0,93 t/hа). It has been also defined that seed productivity has close correlation connection with seed yield that is determined by biometric characteristics of the reproductive organs. Conclusion. Considerable impact of air temperature and precipitation on the formation of crop productivity elements has been established according to the results of five-year experiment. Impact of air temperature and precipitation is determinative for switchgrass and castor-oil plants yield and productivity. It has been found that increase of precipitation as well as growth of air temperature is favourable for castor-oil plants yield but much drier weather of the vegetation period is better for switchgrass yield. Taking into consideration research results according to biometric characteristics of plants and seed productivity depending on weather conditions, castor-oil plant can be recommended to cultivate on farms in the central forest-steppe of Ukraine in order to get technical oil of high quality and switchgrass is recommended to be used for biofuel production and energy generation.
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